Scientific Paper / Artículo Científico


pISSN: 1390-650X / eISSN: 1390-860X








Héctor-Hugo Riojas-González1,*, Liborio-Jesús Bortoni-Anzures1,

Juan-Julián Martínez-Torres1, Héctor A. Ruiz2


Received: 19-04-2023, Received after review: 11-05-2023, Accepted: 29-05-2023, Published: 01-07-2023




The demand for diesel utilization in heavy-duty vehicles continues to increase worldwide. However, the potential use of alternative fuels such as biodiesel has disadvantages, such as lower calorific value and higher viscosity. For this reason, it is necessary to improve its properties to optimize combustion in the engine and reduce emissions. This research explores the various blends that can improve biodiesel utilization through strategies and advancements that optimize diesel engine performance. Among the various strategies to improve biodiesel, we find the mixtures of different bio-oils (vegetable oils, pyrolysis oils, and used cooking oils), blends of biodiesel with alcohol and hydrogen, the use of biodiesel as a pilot fuel, emulsions of biodiesel with water, and the application of antioxidants, nanotubes, and nanoparticles to biodiesel. It is concluded that currently, biodiesel can be used through the dual combustion technique, where it acts as a pilot fuel representing 10% or 20% of the total fuel in the engine. This strategy allows

for the promotion of other fuels (liquids and gases) in dual combustion to find the optimal blend that is the best option for the diesel engine.

La demanda de diésel en vehículos pesados se incrementa

cada año en el mundo. El posible uso de combustibles alternativos como el biodiésel tiene algunas desventajas como el menor valor calorífico y su mayor viscosidad, por esta razón se requiere mejorar sus propiedades, optimizando el comportamiento de la combustión en el motor y en la reducción de las emisiones. El objetivo del trabajo de investigación es explorar las diferentes mezclas que puedan ayudar a mejorar el uso del biodiésel a través de las estrategias y avances que se han generado con el propósito de beneficiar el desempeño del motor diésel. Entre las distintas estrategias de mejoramiento del biodiésel están las mezclas de distintos bioaceites (aceites vegetales, de pirólisis y usado de cocina), mezclas del biodiésel con alcohol, con hidrógeno, el biodiésel como combustible piloto, las emulsiones del biodiésel con agua y la aplicación del biodiésel con antioxidantes, nanotubos y nanopartículas. Se concluye que para poder usar actualmente el biodiésel se lo haría con la combustión dual, en donde este representaría el combustible piloto (10 % o 20 % del combustible total del motor). Con esta estrategia se puede impulsar a otros combustibles (líquidos y gaseosos) en la combustión dual, para que con el paso del tiempo se encuentre la mezcla óptima que sea la mejor opción para el motor diésel.


Keywords: Biodiesel, engines, mixtures, oils, dual combustion, emulsions

Palabras clave: biodiésel, motores, mezclas, aceites, combustión dual, emulsiones













1,*Universidad Politécnica de Victoria, Ciudad Victoria, Tamaulipas, México.

Corresponding author :

2Grupo de Biorrefinería, Departamento de Investigación en Alimentos, Facultad de Ciencias Químicas, Universidad Autónoma de Coahuila, Saltillo, Coahuila, México.


Suggested citation: Riojas-González, H. H.; Bortoni-Anzures, L. J.; Martínez-Torres, J. J. and Ruiz, H. A. “Advancesand strategies to improve the performance of biodiesel in diesel engine,” Ingenius, Revista de Ciencia y Tecnología, N.◦ 30, pp. 90-105, 2023, doi:



1.      Introduction


From 2010 to 2040, the demand for the most used fuel in heavy-duty vehicles, diesel, is expected to increase by 85%, while the gasoline demand will decrease by approximately 10% [1]. As a result, the growing demand for energy in transportation focuses on diesel engines [2]. Unfortunately, the transportation sector worldwide is one of the main contributors to environmental pollution, generating 26% of greenhouse gas emissions [3]. Biofuels are considered carbon-neutral fuels, as plant crops easily absorb the CO2 they produce through photosynthesis. Among the biofuels is biodiesel, which has a lower energy content than diesel. This is due to biodiesel’s higher density, viscosity, specific fuel consumption, and NOx emissions. These are some limitations that affect biodiesel.

However, the properties of biodiesel can be improved by applying metal-based additives, oxygenated

additives, antioxidants, cetane improvers, lubricants, and cold flow property optimizers. The addition of alcohol [4]

and the blend of diesel-alcohol with biodiesel result in the formation of diesterol. In the quest to improve the properties of biodiesel, many researchers have employed various methods, such as transesterification (Figure 1), oil heating, alcohol blending, and mixing with diesel or other alternative fuels [5]. Furthermore, renewable diesel has been obtained, which, unlike biodiesel, can be derived from lipids (oil or fat) as a raw material through a hydrodeoxygenation reaction with a catalyst at high temperatures and pressure [6]. This research aims to explore different blends that enhance the use of biodiesel through strategies and advancements that optimize diesel engine performance. The most critical factor for biodiesel production is the raw material used.


2.      Blends with different oils


Several authors recommend blends of different oils (Table 1).



Figure 1. Transesterification process: (a) catalyst, (b) reactor with oil, (c) conditioning, (d) purification, (e) salts, and (f) biodiesel


Table1.  Evaluation of diesel engine performance using different bio-oils compared to conventional diesel



Vallinayagam et al. [14] determined that a blend of 50% Kapok Methyl Ester (KME) and 50% pine oil was optimal in terms of performance and emissions. They observed a reduction in HC, smoke, and CO.However, the BTE of the blend was lower than diesel at low loads, although it was very similar to diesel at high loads. Singh et al. [15] determined that a blend of 70% Aamla oil and 30% eucalyptus oil reduces CO, HC, and smoke emissions, while NOx is equivalent to diesel.

Kasiraman et al. [16] recommend a blend of 70% cashew shell oil and 30% camphor oil, which yields promising results, although it is still inferior to diesel. Dubey and Gupta [17] recommend a blend of 50% jatropha oil and 50% turpentine oil. This blend yielded the best results, significantly reducing NOx, CO, HC, and smoke compared to diesel, especially under fullload conditions. Sharma and Murugan [18] recommend a blend of 20% tire pyrolysis oil and 80% jatropha oil. Table 2 shows the physicochemical properties of the biodiesel.


Table 2. Technical properties of various biodiesel types


3.      Biodiesel-alcohol blend


Biodiesel’s high viscosity, low volatility, and poor cold flow properties negatively affect combustion quality [19]. However, these characteristics can be improved by adding alcohol [27]. Fuel blends known as diesterol (composed of diesel, biodiesel, and ethanol) have demonstrated greater efficiency, improved performance, and lower emissions. This is because ethanol, with its high calorific value and low density compared to biodiesel, compensates for its deficiencies [28].

Additionally, ethanol has low viscosity and optimal cold flow properties, so when mixed with biodiesel, it helps reduce viscosity, increase volatility, and improve cold flow properties at low temperatures [29]. Table 3 presents the blend of ethanol and biodiesel and their emissions. The high oxygen content of ethanol can further reduce PM emissions in the mix with biodiesel [20]. The high cetane number of biodiesel compensates for the low cetane number of ethanol, thereby improving

engine combustion [21].

The presence of biodiesel in the ethanol-diesel blend increases the cetane content and enhances the autoignition quality of the mixture [30]. Adding ethanol to the biodiesel-diesel blend improves overall physical


properties such as evaporation and droplet size of the fuel

mixture [22]. Tables 4 and 5 depict biodiesel blends with alcohols and their impact on engine performance.


Table 3. Emissions generation in the blend of biodiesel and ethanol


Table 4. Emission generation in the blend of biodiesel with alcohols




Table 5. Impact of bio-oil and alcohol blends on engine performance and emissions 


Another option for biodiesel blending is using longer-chain higher alcohols, such as butanol and pentanol. These alcohols can be blended with biodiesel at proportions of up to 20% and with diesel in diesel engines without any alterations [44]. Babu et al. [44], determined that up to 29% of butanol blended with biodiesel can be added without causing any modifications to the engine, thereby improving the properties of biodiesel and optimizing the combustion of the blends.


4.      Biogas and biodiesel blend


Biogas can be used in dual combustion as the primary fuel, with biodiesel serving as the pilot fuel. Sahoo [45] investigated the performance of dual combustion using biogas, obtaining a BTE of 16.8% and 16.1% for diesel and Jatropha biodiesel, respectively, compared to 20.9% for conventional diesel. Luijten and Kerkhof [46] analyzed synthetic biogas with a CO2 variation from 30% to 60%, using a single-cylinder naturally aspirated diesel engine fueled with Jatropha biodiesel as the pilot fuel. They reported a slight variation in the engine’s

BTE when increasing the biogas energy proportion at high loads, while a significant BTE decrease was observed at low loads. Table 6 displays the engine performance with the blend of biodiesel, alcohol, and biogas.


5.      Application of bio-oil with water


Using water-emulsified fuel in biodiesel (Figure 2) could reduce NOx and PM emissions [47]. Additionally, a decrease in smoke has been observed, but there is an increase in fuel consumption, CO, and HC emissions [48]. Fuel emulsion also reduces wear and friction, and this decrease could be related to the presence of water, which results in lower temperatures and, therefore, less combustion wear [49]. Water emulsion increases BTE (brake thermal efficiency) by improving fuel atomization

and evaporation, creating a microexplosion that forms a fine aerosol and enhances fuel vaporization. The continuous braking of water droplets in the emulsification process increases the evaporation surface area and ensures precise mixing, resulting in improved reaction and combustion efficiency [50]. Table 7 presents the results obtained in the application of biodiesel emulsions.



Table 6. Dual fuel blending with bio-oil and alcohol with biogas



Figure 1. Transesterification process: (a) catalyst, (b) reactor with oil, (c) conditioning, (d) purification, (e) salts, and (f) biodiesel



Table 7. Application of bio-oils in emulsions


6.      Biodiesel blend with natural gas


Natural gas can be used in dual-fuel combustion as the primary fuel, while biodiesel is used as the pilot fuel. Paul et al. [58] utilized pongamia pinnata methyl ester (PPME) as the pilot fuel in a dual-fuel CI engine by adding natural gas. Biodiesel showed an improvement in BTE and a reduction in BSFC. The combustion was more complete, reducing CO and HC emissions, although there was an increase in NOx emissions.

Tarabet et al. [59] determined that enriching natural gas with H2 in a dual-fuel mode, using eucalyptus biodiesel as the pilot fuel improves engine performance and reduces emissions. On the other hand, the study conducted by Ryu [60] using vegetable oil (used cooking oil) as the pilot fuel in a DI Common Rail engine with natural gas, resulted in a power loss attributed to biodiesel due to its higher kinematic viscosity compared to diesel. Senthilraja et al. [61] conducted a

study on combining seed methyl ester blends with diesel-ethanol enriched with CNG. They reported an increase in BSFC when increasing the concentration of the biodiesel-ethanol combination.

On the other hand, in the experimental studies conducted by Kalsi et al. [62], an RCCI engine was fueled with biodiesel using compressed natural gas mixed with hydrogen, resulting in significant improvements in BTE and reduction of smoke, HC, and CO.


7.      Biodiesel and hydrogen blend


Since hydrogen is a carbon-free energy carrier, all carbon-based emissions such as HC, CO, H2O, PM, and smoke decrease significantly in dual-fuel diesel engines under all loads [63]. The engine performance, as well as the engine behavior and its emissions with the blend of biodiesel and hydrogen, are presented in Tables 8 and 9, respectively.


Table 8. Engine performance with biodiesel and hydrogen blend


Table 9. Engine performance and emissions with biodiesel and hydrogen blend



8.     Biodiesel and antioxidants blend


Several studies have indicated that the addition of antioxidants reduces emissions. Among the phenolic antioxidants, TBHQ, BHA, and BHT are commonly used to control fuel degradation and improve biodiesel storage. These antioxidants help reduce NOx emissions but may increase smoke, CO, and HC emissions [72].

Rashedul et al. [73] analyzed the effect of the antioxidant BHT in combination with Callophyllum biodiesel and found that BHT improves fuel stability, reducing NOx emissions. Additionally, it increased braking power, achieved higher thermal efficiency (BTE), and reduced specific fuel consumption (BSFC). On the other hand, Ryu [74] conducted a comparative study of antioxidants using soybean oil biodiesel. It concluded that the effectiveness of antioxidants follows the order TBHQ > PrG > BHA > BHT > alpha-tocopherol. The study also revealed that using these antioxidants leads to a decrease in specific fuel consumption. However, commercial antioxidant additives are often expensive and produced from non-renewable materials, which has motivated the search for new low-cost alternative additives obtained from biomass or waste sources [75].


9.      Nanoparticles in biodiesel


Adding nanoparticles to biodiesel improves its thermophysical properties, such as conductivity, mass diffusivity, surface-to-volume ratio, and physicochemical properties like kinematic viscosity, flash point, and pour point, among others [76].

Table 10 presents the engine performance with the mixture of nanoparticles and biodiesel. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have the potential to be used as additives in dual combustion to enhance the fuel and achieve improved results in terms of BSFC, BTE, and NOx emissions. However, the issue of the lack of stability in the CNT mixture can be addressed by applying a fuel stabilizer or surfactant [77]. Table 11 shows the engine behavior with the blend of biodiesel and CNTs.

Mirzajanzadeh et al. [78] provide a detailed explanation of the use of nanoparticles. They synthesized a soluble hybrid nanocatalyst to improve engine performance. They added a compound of cerium oxide and multi-walled carbon nanotubes functionalized with amide groups to the blend of diesel and biodiesel. The results showed a reduction in CO, HC, NOx, and soot emissions. Additionally, an improvement in engine performance and a decrease in fuel consumption were observed. However, caution must be exercised in using cerium oxide nanoparticles due to health risks such as cytotoxicity induction, oxidative stress, and lung inflammation [79]. Therefore, their use should be controlled. Replacing metal-based nanoparticles with non-metallic nanoparticles may be necessary as they are less toxic [80].



Table 10. Analysis of nanoparticles applied in biodiesel 


Table 11. Engine performance and emissions with the blend of biodiesel and applied carbon nanotubes (CNTs) 


A new alternative consists of using organic nanoparticles, such as coconut shells, which can be mixed with biodiesel and applied in diesel engines [93].

Table 12 presents the technical characteristics of the biodiesel ratio.


Table 12. Technical characteristics of biodiesel with nanoparticles


10.  Conclusions


Due to the high production cost of biodiesel and some unfavorable properties, such as its low calorific value, high viscosity, and density compared to conventional diesel, it is crucial to implement strategies to increase its attractiveness. We have concluded that there are two promising alternatives for its future application. The

first one is to find an appropriate blend that justifies the commercial use of biodiesel by optimizing its properties and performance. The second option is to use biodiesel as a component in fuel blends, using a proportion of 10% to 20% relative to the total fuel in the engine. This would allow for the application and promotion of other types of biofuels, such as gaseous fuels in dual-fuel diesel engines, opening new possibilities and contributing to greater sustainability in the transportation sector.





[1] G. T. Kalghatgi, “The outlook for fuels for internal combustion engines,” International Journal of Engine Research, vol. 15, no. 4, pp. 383–398, 2014. [Online]. Available:

[2] G. Kalghatgi, “Developments in internal combustion engines and implications for combustion science and future transport fuels,” Proceedings of the Combustion Institute, vol. 35, no. 1, pp. 101–115, 2015. [Online]. Available:

[3] F. Barraj and Y. Attalah, “Composite sustainable indicators framework for cost assessment of land transport mode in lebanon cities,” Journal of Transportation Technologies, vol. 8, pp. 232–253, 2018. [Online]. Available:

[4] H. Rashedul, H. Masjuki, M. Kalam, A. Ashraful, S. Ashrafur Rahman, and S. Shahir, “The effect of additives on properties, performance and emission

of biodiesel fuelled compression ignition engine,” Energy Conversion and Management, vol. 88, pp. 348–364, 2014. [Online]. Available:

[5] O. M. Ali, R. Mamat, N. R. Abdullah, and A. A. Abdullah, “Analysis of blended fuel properties and engine performance with palm biodiesel–diesel blended fuel,” Renewable Energy, vol. 86, pp. 59–67, 2016. [Online]. Available:

[6] G. Knothe, “Biodiesel and renewable diesel: A comparison,” Progress in Energy and Combustion Science, vol. 36, no. 3, pp. 364–373, 2010. [Online]. Available:

[7] M. Canakci and M. Hosoz, “Energy and exergy analyses of a diesel engine fuelled with various biodiesels,” Energy Sources, Part B: Economics, Planning, and Policy, vol. 1, no. 4, pp. 379–394, 2006. [Online]. Available:


[8]S. Chandra Sekhar, K. Karuppasamy, N. Vedaraman, A. Kabeel, R. Sathyamurthy, M. Elkelawy,and H. Alm ElDin Bastawissi, “Biodiesel production process optimization from pithecellobium dulce seed oil: Performance, combustion, and emission analysis on compression ignition engine fuelled with diesel/biodiesel blends,” Energy Conversion and Management, vol. 161, pp. 141–154, 2018. [Online]. Available:

[9] K. Purushothaman and G. Nagarajan, “Performance, emission and combustion characteristics of a compression ignition engine operating on neat orange oil,” Renewable Energy, vol. 34, no. 1, pp. 242–245, 2009. [Online]. Available:

[10] M. Xie, Z. J. Ma, Q. H. Wang, and J. Liu, “Investigation of engine combustion and emission performance fuelled with neat pode and pode/diesel blend,” Journal of Xi’an Jiaotong University, vol. 51, no. 3, pp. 32–37, 2017. [Online]. Available:

[11] M. H. M. Yasin, R. Mamat, A. F. Yusop, P. Paruka, T. Yusaf, and G. Najafi, “Effects of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) on a diesel engine fuelled with palm-biodiesel,” Energy Procedia, vol. 75, pp. 30–36, 2015, clean, Efficient and Affordable Energy for a Sustainable Future: The 7th International Conference on Applied Energy (ICAE2015). [Online]. Available:

[12] K. Venkateswarlu, K. V. Kumar, B. S. R. Murthy, and V. V. Subbarao, “Effect of exhaust gas recirculation and ethyl hexyl nitrate additive on biodiesel fuelled diesel engine for the reduction of noxemissions,” Frontiers in Energy, vol. 6, no. 3, pp. 304–310, Sep 2012. [Online]. Available:

[13] H. Raheman and S. Ghadge, “Performance of compression ignition engine with mahua (madhuca indica) biodiesel,” Fuel, vol. 86, no. 16, pp. 2568–2573, 2007. [Online]. Available:

[14] R. Vallinayagam, S. Vedharaj, W. Yang, P. Lee, K. Chua, and S. Chou, “Pine oil–biodiesel blends: A double biofuel strategy to completely eliminate the use of diesel in a diesel engine,” Applied Energy, vol. 130, pp. 466–473, 2014. [Online]. Available:

[15] P. Singh, S. Chauhan, and V. Goel, “Assessment of diesel engine combustion, performance and emission characteristics fuelled with dual fuel blends,” Renewable Energy, vol. 125, pp. 501–510, 2018. [Online]. Available:

[16] G. Kasiraman, B. Nagalingam, and M. Balakrishnan, “Performance, emission and combustion improvements in a direct injection diesel engine using cashew nut shell oil as fuel with camphor oil blending,” Energy, vol. 47, no. 1, pp. 116–124, 2012, Asia-Pacific Forum on Renewable Energy 2011. [Online]. Available:

[17] P. Dubey and R. Gupta, “Effects of dual bio-fuel (jatropha biodiesel and turpentine oil) on a single cylinder naturally aspirated diesel engine without egr,” Applied Thermal Engineering, vol. 115, pp. 1137–1147, 2017. [Online]. Available:

[18] A. Sharma and S. Murugan, “Potential for using a tyre pyrolysis oil-biodiesel blend in a diesel engine at different compression ratios,” Energy Conversion and Management, vol. 93, pp. 289–297, 2015. [Online]. Available:

[19] Y. Liu, J. Li, and C. Jin, “Fuel spray and combustion characteristics of butanol blends in a constant volume combustion chamber,” Energy Conversion and Management, vol. 105, pp. 1059–1069, 2015. [Online]. Available:

[20] L. Zhu, C. Cheung, W. Zhang, and Z. Huang, “Combustion, performance and emission characteristics of a DI diesel engine fueled with ethanol–biodiesel blends,” Fuel, vol. 90, no. 5, pp. 1743–1750, 2011. [Online]. Available:

[21] G. Khoobbakht, M. Karimi, and K. Kheiralipour, “Effects of biodiesel-ethanol-diesel blends on the performance indicators of a diesel engine: A study by response surface modeling,” Applied Thermal Engineering, vol. 148, pp. 1385–1394, 2019. [Online]. Available:

[22] C. Zhan, Z. Feng, W. Ma, M. Zhang, C. Tang, and Z. Huang, “Experimental investigation on effect of ethanol and di-ethyl ether addition on the spray characteristics of diesel/biodiesel blends under high injection pressure,” Fuel, vol. 218, pp. 1–11, 2018. [Online]. Available:

[23] H. Imdadul, H. Masjuki, M. Kalam, N. Zulkifli, A. Alabdulkarem, M. Kamruzzaman, and M. Rashed, “A comparative study of C4 and C5 alcohol treated diesel–biodiesel blends in terms of diesel engine performance and exhaust emission,” Fuel, vol. 179, pp. 281–288, 2016. [Online]. Available:


[24] H. Venu and V. Madhavan, “Effect of Al2O3 nanoparticles in biodiesel-diesel-ethanol blends at various injection strategies: Performance, combustion and emission characteristics,” Fuel, vol. 186, pp. 176–189, 2016. [Online]. Available:

[25] H. Aydin and C. Ilkılıç, “Effect of ethanol blending with biodiesel on engine performance and exhaust emissions in a CI engine,” Applied Thermal Engineering, vol. 30, no. 10, pp. 1199–1204, 2010. [Online]. Available:

[26] B. J. Bora and U. K. Saha, “Comparative assessment of a biogas run dual fuel diesel engine with rice bran oil methyl ester, pongamia oil methyl ester and palm oil methyl ester as pilot fuels,” Renewable Energy, vol. 81, pp. 490–498, 2015. [Online]. Available:

[27] M. Zaharin, N. Abdullah, G. Najafi, H. Sharudin, and T. Yusaf, “Effects of physicochemical properties of biodiesel fuel blends with alcohol on diesel engine performance and exhaust emissions: A review,” Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, vol. 79, pp. 475–493, 2017. [Online]. Available:

[28] Y. Noorollahi, M. Azadbakht, and B. Ghobadian, “The effect of different diesterol (diesel–biodiesel–ethanol) blends on small air-cooled diesel engine performance and its exhaust gases,” Energy, vol. 142, pp. 196–200, 2018. [Online]. Available:

[29] L. Wei, C. Cheung, and Z. Ning, “Effects of biodiesel-ethanol and biodiesel-butanol blends on the combustion, performance and emissions of a diesel engine,” Energy, vol. 155, pp. 957–970, 2018. [Online]. Available:

[30] F. Aydın and H. Öˇgüt, “Effects of using ethanol-biodiesel-diesel fuel in single cylinder diesel engine to engine performance and emissions,” Renewable Energy, vol. 103, pp. 688–694, 2017. [Online]. Available:

[31] M. Parthasarathy, J. Isaac JoshuaRamesh Lalvani, B. Dhinesh, and K. Annamalai, “Effect of hydrogen on ethanol–biodiesel blend on performance and emission characteristics of a direct injection diesel engine,” Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, vol. 134, pp. 433–439, 2016, Green Technologies for Environmental Pollution Control and Prevention (Part 2).

[Online]. Available:

[32] T. Shudo, A. Fujibe, M. Kazahaya, Y. Aoyagi, I. Hajime, Y. Goto, and A. Noda, “The cold flow performance and the combustion characteristics with ethanol blended biodiesel fuel,” in Powertrain & Fluid Systems Conference & Exhibition. SAE International, oct 2005. [Online]. Available:

[33] A. Paul, R. Panua, and D. Debroy, “An experimental study of combustion, performance, exergy and emission characteristics of a ci engine fueled by diesel-ethanol-biodiesel blends,” Energy, vol. 141, pp. 839–852, 2017. [Online]. Available:

[34] D. B. Hulwan and S. V. Joshi, “Performance, emission and combustion characteristic of a multicylinder DI diesel engine running on diesel–ethanol–biodiesel blends of high ethanol content,” Applied Energy, vol. 88, no. 12, pp. 5042–5055, 2011. [Online]. Available:

[35] Z.-H. Zhang and R. Balasubramanian, “Investigation of particulate emission characteristics of a diesel engine fueled with higher alcohols/biodiesel blends,” Applied Energy, vol. 163, pp. 71–80, 2016. [Online]. Available:

[36] V. Soloiu, M. Duggan, H. Ochieng, S. Harp, J. Weaver, C. Jenkins, and B. Vlcek, “Premixed charge of n-butanol coupled with direct injection of biodiesel for an advantageous Soot-NOx tradeoff,” in SAE 2013 World Congress & Exhibition. SAE International, apr 2013. [Online]. Available:

[37] J. Hou, Z. Wen, Z. Jiang, and X. Qiao, “Study on combustion and emissions of a turbocharged compression ignition engine fueled with dimethyl ether and biodiesel blends,” Journal of the Energy Institute, vol. 87, no. 2, pp. 102–113, 2014. [Online]. Available:

[38] K. Yang, L. Wei, C. Cheung, C. Tang, and Z. Huang, “The effect of pentanol addition on the particulate emission characteristics of a biodiesel operated diesel engine,” Fuel, vol. 209, pp. 132–140, 2017. [Online]. Available:

[39] R. Sridhar, J. Jeevahan, and M. Chandrasekaran, “Effect of the addition of 1-pentanol on engine performance and emission characteristics of diesel and biodiesel fuelled single cylinder diesel engine,” International Journal of Ambient Energy, vol. 41, no. 1, pp. 58–63, 2020. [Online]. Available:


[40] V. Sriram, J. Jeevahan, G. Mageshwaran, G. B. Joseph, and R. B. Durairaj, “Engine performance and emission characteristics of 1-octanol blended bio-diesel in a single cylinder diesel engine,” International Journal of Mechanical and Production, vol. 7, no. 6, pp. 623–630, 2017. [Online]. Available:

[41] N. Yilmaz, A. Atmanli, and F. M. Vigil, “Quaternary blends of diesel, biodiesel, higher alcohols and vegetable oil in a compression ignition engine,” Fuel, vol. 212, pp. 462–469, 2018. [Online]. Available:

[42] D. Babu and R. Anand, “Effect of biodiesel-diesel-n-pentanol and biodiesel-dieseln-hexanol blends on diesel engine emission and combustion characteristics,” Energy, vol. 133, pp. 761–776, 2017. [Online]. Available:

[43] D. Barik and S. Murugan, “Effects of diethyl ether (DEE) injection on combustion performance and emission characteristics of karanja methyl ester (kme)–biogas fueled dual fuel diesel engine,” Fuel, vol. 164, pp. 286–296, 2016. [Online]. Available:

[44] M. Vinod Babu, K. Madhu Murthy, and R. G. Amba Prasad, “Butanol and pentanol: The promising biofuels for CI engines – a review,” Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, vol. 78, pp. 1068–1088, 2017. [Online]. Available:

[45] B. Sahoo, “Clean development mechanism potential of compression ignition diesel engines using gaseous fuels in dual fuel mode,” Ph.D. dissertation, Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati, 2011. [Online]. Available:

[46] C. Luijten and E. Kerkhof, “Jatropha oil and biogas in a dual fuel CI engine for rural electrification,” Energy Conversion and Management, vol. 52, no. 2, pp. 1426–1438, 2011. [Online]. Available:

[47] A. Hasannuddin, J. Wira, S. Sarah, M. Ahmad, S. Aizam, M. Aiman, S. Watanabe, N. Hirofumi, and M. Azrin, “Durability studies of single cylinder diesel engine running on emulsion fuel,” Energy, vol. 94, pp. 557–568, 2016. [Online]. Available:

[48] K. Ramalingam, A. Kandasamy, L. Subramani, D. Balasubramanian, and J. Paul James Thadhani, “An assessment of combustion, performance characteristics and emission control strategy by adding anti-oxidant additive in emulsified fuel,” Atmospheric Pollution Research, vol. 9, no. 5, pp. 959–967, 2018. [Online]. Available:

[49] A. Hasannuddin, J. Wira, S. Sarah, W. Wan Syaidatul Aqma, A. Abdul Hadi, N. Hirofumi, S. Aizam, M. Aiman, S. Watanabe, M. Ahmad, and M. Azrin, “Performance, emissions and lubricant oil analysis of diesel engine running on emulsion fuel,” Energy Conversion and Management, vol. 117, pp. 548–557, 2016. [Online]. Available:

[50] M. Abedin, A. Imran, H. Masjuki, M. Kalam, S. Shahir, M. Varman, and A. Ruhul, “An overview on comparative engine performance and emission characteristics of different techniques involved in diesel engine as dual-fuel engine operation,” Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, vol. 60, pp. 306–316, 2016. [Online]. Available:

[51] S. H. Yoon and C. S. Lee, “Experimental investigation on the combustion and exhaust emission characteristics of biogas–biodiesel dual-fuel combustion in a ciengine,” Fuel Processing Technology, vol. 92, no. 5, pp. 992–1000, 2011. [Online]. Available:

[52] X. Yuan, X. Ding, L. Leng, H. Li, J. Shao, Y. Qian, H. Huang, X. Chen, and G. Zeng, “Applications of bio-oil-based emulsions in a DI diesel engine: The effects of bio-oil compositions on engine performance and emissions,” Energy, vol. 154, pp. 110–118, 2018. [Online]. Available:

[53] G. Kannan and R. Anand, “Experimental investigation on diesel engine with diestrol–water micro emulsions,” Energy, vol. 36, no. 3, pp. 1680–1687, 2011. [Online]. Available:

[54] A. B. Koc and M. Abdullah, “Performance and NOx emissions of a diesel engine fueled with biodiesel-diesel-water nanoemulsions,” Fuel Processing Technology, vol. 109, pp. 70–77, may 2013. [Online]. Available:


[55] A. Sarvi, C.-J. Fogelholm, and R. Zevenhoven, “Emissions from large-scale medium-speed diesel engines: 1. influence of engine operation mode and turbocharger,” Fuel Processing Technology, vol. 89, no. 5, pp. 510–519, 2008. [Online]. Available:

[56] R. Prakash, R. Singh, and S. Murugan, “Experimental investigation on a diesel engine fueled with bio-oil derived from waste wood–biodiesel emulsions,” Energy, vol. 55, pp. 610–618, 2013. [Online]. Available:

[57] ——, “Experimental studies on combustion, performance and emission characteristics of diesel engine using different biodiesel bio oil emulsions,” Journal of the Energy Institute, vol. 88, no. 1, pp. 64–75, 2015. [Online]. Available:

[58] A. Paul, R. S. Panua, D. Debroy, and P. K. Bose, “Effect of compressed natural gas dual fuel operation with diesel and pongamia pinnata methyl ester (PPME) as pilot fuels on performance and emission characteristics of a CI (compression ignition) engine,” Energy, vol. 68, pp. 495–509, 2014. [Online]. Available:

[59] L. Tarabet, M. Lounici, K. Loubar, K. Khiari, R. Bouguessa, and M. Tazerout, “Hydrogen supplemented natural gas effect on a DI diesel engine operating under dual fuel mode with a biodiesel pilot fuel,” International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, vol. 43, no. 11, pp. 5961–5971, 2018. [Online]. Available:

[60] K. Ryu, “Effects of pilot injection pressure on the combustion and emissions characteristics in a diesel engine using biodiesel–CNG dual fuel,” Energy Conversion and Management, vol. 76, pp. 506–516, 2013. [Online]. Available:

[61] R. Senthilraja, V. Sivakumar, K. Thirugnanasambandham, and N. Nedunchezhian, “Performance, emission and combustion characteristics of a dual fuel engine with diesel–ethanol – cotton seed oil methyl ester blends and compressed natural gas (CNG) as fuel,” Energy, vol.112, pp. 899–907, 2016. [Online]. Available:

[62] S. S. Kalsi and K. Subramanian, “Experimental investigations of effects of hydrogen blended CNG on performance, combustion and emissions characteristics of a biodiesel fueled reactivity controlled compression ignition engine (RCCI),” International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, vol. 42,

no. 7, pp. 4548–4560, 2017. [Online]. Available:

[63] V. Chintala and K. Subramanian, “A comprehensive review on utilization of hydrogen in a compression ignition engine under dual fuel mode,” Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, vol. 70, pp. 472–491, 2017. [Online]. Available:

[64] E. Uludamar, Şafak Yıldızhan, K. Aydın, and M. Özcanlı, “Vibration, noise and exhaust emissions analyses of an unmodified compression ignition engine fuelled with low sulphur diesel and biodiesel blends with hydrogen addition,” International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, vol. 41, no. 26, pp. 11 481–11 490, 2016. [Online]. Available:

[65] T. Korakianitis, A. Namasivayam, and R. Crookes, “Hydrogen dual-fuelling of compression ignition engines with emulsified biodiesel as pilot fuel,” International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, vol. 35, no. 24, pp. 13 329–13 344, 2010, 3rd Asian Bio Hydrogen Symposium. [Online]. Available:

[66] M. Senthil Kumar, A. Ramesh, and B. Nagalingam, “Use of hydrogen to enhance the performance of a vegetable oil fuelled compression ignition engine,” International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, vol. 28, no. 10, pp. 1143–1154, 2003. [Online]. Available:

[67] M. O. Hamdan and M. Y. Selim, “Performance of CI engine operating with hydrogen supplement co-combustion with jojoba methyl ester,” International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, vol. 41, no. 24, pp. 10 255–10 264, 2016. [Online]. Available:

[68] H. Masjuki, A. Ruhul, N. N. Mustafi, M. Kalam, M. Arbab, and I. Rizwanul Fattah, “Study of production optimization and effect of hydroxyl gas on a CI engine performance and emission fueled with biodiesel blends,” International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, vol. 41, no. 33, pp. 14 519–14 528, 2016. [Online]. Available:

[69] M. G. Shirk, T. P. McGuire, G. L. Neal, and D. C. Haworth, “Investigation of a hydrogen-assisted combustion system for a light-duty diesel vehicle,” International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, vol. 33, no. 23, pp. 7237–7244, 2008. [Online]. Available:


[70] M. Senthil Kumar and M. Jaikumar, “Studies on the effect of hydrogen induction on performance, emission and combustion behaviour of a WCO emulsion based dual fuel engine,” International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, vol. 39, no. 32, pp. 18 440–18 450, 2014. [Online]. Available:

[71] K. A. Subramanian and V. Chintala, “Reduction of GHGs emissions in a biodiesel fueled diesel engine using hydrogen,” Oct 2013, volume 2: Fuels; Numerical Simulation; Engine Design, Lubrication, and Applications. [Online]. Available:

[72] K. Varatharajan and M. Cheralathan, “Effect of aromatic amine antioxidants on NOx emissions from a soybean biodiesel powered DI diesel engine,” Fuel Processing Technology, vol.106, pp. 526–532, 2013. [Online]. Available:

[73] H. Rashedul, H. Masjuki, M. Kalam, Y. Teoh, H. How, and I. Rizwanul Fattah, “Effect of antioxidant on the oxidation stability and combustion–performance–emission characteristics of a diesel engine fueled with diesel–biodiesel blend,” Energy Conversion and Management, vol. 106, pp. 849–858, 2015. [Online]. Available:

[74] K. Ryu, “The characteristics of performance and exhaust emissions of a diesel engine using a biodiesel with antioxidants,” Bioresource Technology, vol. 101, no. 1, Supplement, pp. S78–S82, 2010, Supplement Issue on Recent Developments of Biomass Conversion Technologies. [Online]. Available:

[75] C. Dueso, M. Muñoz, F. Moreno, J. Arroyo, N. Gil-Lalaguna, A. Bautista, A. Gonzalo, and J. L. Sánchez, “Performance and emissions of a diesel engine using sunflower biodiesel with a renewable antioxidant additive from bio-oil,” Fuel, vol. 234, pp. 276–285, 2018. [Online]. Available:

[76] S. H. Hosseini, A. Taghizadeh-Alisaraei, B. Ghobadian, and A. Abbaszadeh-Mayvan, “Performance and emission characteristics of a ci engine fuelled with carbon nanotubes and diesel-biodiesel blends,” Renewable Energy, vol. 111, pp. 201–213, 2017. [Online]. Available:

[77] A. F. Chen, M. Akmal Adzmi, A. Adam, M. F. Othman, M. K. Kamaruzzaman, and A. G. Mrwan, “Combustion characteristics, engine performances and emissions of a diesel engine using nanoparticle-diesel fuel blends with aluminium

oxide, carbon nanotubes and silicon oxide,” Energy Conversion and Management, vol. 171, pp. 461–477, 2018. [Online]. Available:

[78] M. Mirzajanzadeh, M. Tabatabaei, M. Ardjmand, A. Rashidi, B. Ghobadian, M. Barkhi, and M. Pazouki, “A novel soluble nano-catalysts in diesel–biodiesel fuel blends to improve diesel engines performance and reduce exhaust emissions,” Fuel, vol. 139, pp. 374–382, 2015. [Online]. Available:

[79] A. Srinivas, P. J. Rao, G. Selvam, P. B. Murthy, and P. N. Reddy, “Acute inhalation toxicity of cerium oxide nanoparticles in rats,” Toxicology Letters, vol. 205, no. 2, pp. 105–115, 2011. [Online]. Available:

[80] S. Hoseini, G. Najafi, B. Ghobadian, R. Mamat, M. Ebadi, and T. Yusaf, “Novel environmentally friendly fuel: The effects of nanographene oxide additives on the performance and emission characteristics of diesel engines fuelled with ailanthus altissima biodiesel,” Renewable Energy, vol. 125, pp. 283–294, 2018. [Online]. Available:

[81] S. Karthikeyan and A. Prathima, “Environmental effect of ci engine using microalgae methyl ester with doped nano additives,” Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment, vol. 50, pp. 385–396, 2017. [Online]. Available:

[82] R. D’Silva, K. Binu, and T. Bhat, “Performance and emission characteristics of a C.I. engine fuelled with diesel and TiO2 nanoparticles as fuel additive,” Materials Today: Proceedings, vol. 2, no. 4, pp. 3728–3735, 2015, 4th International Conference on Materials Processing and Characterzation. [Online]. Available:

[83] C. S. Aalam and C. Saravanan, “Effects of nano metal oxide blended mahua biodiesel on CRDI diesel engine,” Ain Shams Engineering Journal, vol. 8, no. 4, pp. 689–696, 2017. [Online]. Available:

[84] V. Arul, A. Selvan V, A. r b, and M. Udayakumar, “Effects of cerium oxide nanoparticle addition in diesel and diesel-biodiesel-ethanol blends on the performance and emission characteristics of a CI engine,” Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences, vol. 4, 09 2009. [Online]. Available:


[85] T. Shaafi and R. Velraj, “Influence of alumina nanoparticles, ethanol and isopropanol blend as additive with diesel–soybean biodiesel blend fuel: Combustion, engine performance and emissions,” Renewable Energy, vol. 80, pp. 655–663, 2015. [Online]. Available:

[86] T. Özgür, M. Özcanli, and K. Aydin, “Investigation of nanoparticle additives to biodiesel for improvement of the performance and exhaust emissions in a compression ignition engine,” International Journal of Green Energy, vol. 12, no. 1, pp. 51–56, 2015. [Online]. Available:

[87] D. Ganesh and G. Gowrishankar, “Effect of nano-fuel additive on emission reduction in a biodiesel fuelled CI engine,” in 2011 International Conference on Electrical and Control Engineering, 2011, pp. 3453–3459. [Online]. Available:

[88] S. Senthur Prabu, M. Asokan, R. Roy, S. Francis, and M. Sreelekh, “Performance, combustion and emission characteristics of diesel engine fuelled with waste cooking oil biodiesel/diesel blends with additives,” Energy, vol. 122, pp. 638–648, 2017. [Online]. Available:

[89] J. Sadhik Basha and R. Anand, “Performance, emission and combustion characteristics of a diesel engine using carbon nanotubes blended jatropha methyl ester emulsions,” Alexandria Engineering Journal, vol. 53, no. 2, pp. 259–273, 2014. [Online]. Available:

[90] P. Tewari, E. Doijode, N. Banapurmath, and V. Yaliwal, “Experimental investigations on a diesel engine fuelled with multi-walled carbon nanotubes blended biodiesel fuels,” International Journal of Automotive Engineering and Technologies, vol. 4, pp. 129–138, 2014. [Online]. Available:

[91] B. Gnanasikamani, “Effect of cnt as additive with biodiesel on the performance and emission characteristics of a DI diesel engine,” International Journal of ChemTech Research, vol. 7, pp. 1230–1236, 02 2015. [Online]. Available:

[92] V. Arul Mozhi Selvan, R. Anand, and M. Udayakumar, “Effect of cerium oxide nanoparticles and carbon nanotubes as fuel-borne additives in diesterol blends on the performance, combustion and emission characteristics of a variable compression ratio engine,” Fuel, vol.130, pp. 160–167, 2014. [Online]. Available:

[93] K. Vinukumar, A. Azhagurajan, S. Vettivel, N. Vedaraman, and A. Haiter Lenin, “Biodiesel with nano additives from coconut shell for decreasing emissions in diesel engines,” Fuel, vol. 222, pp. 180–184, 2018. [Online]. Available: