Fabricación de materiales compuestos de alto rendimiento medioambiental con resina epoxi de origen renovable y núcleos ligeros permeables para infusión asistida por vacío

Contenido principal del artículo

Diego Lascano http://orcid.org/0000-0002-0996-1946
Jorge Valcárcel https://orcid.org/0000-0001-9053-4425
Rafael Balart https://orcid.org/0000-0001-5670-7126
Luís Quiles-Carrillo http://orcid.org/0000-0001-8037-2215
Teodomiro Boronat http://orcid.org/0000-0002-2144-2874

Keywords

materiales compuestos híbridos, núcleo no tejidos, agentes de acoplamiento de silano, VARIM, fibras de basalto, fibras de lino

Resumen

Este trabajo se centra en la fabricación y caracterización de nuevos materiales tipo sándwich híbridos de bajo peso, con diferentes configuraciones de apilamiento de refuerzo de basalto y lino tratadas previamente con silanos. Para aligerar el peso y facilitar la fabricación, se empleó un núcleo de poliéster no tejido que, además de aligerar el peso del compuesto también actuó como medio de difusión de la resina. Se empleó una resina epoxi de origen parcialmente renovable con un diluyente reactivo derivado de aceites vegetales epoxidados que contribuye a un 31 % de origen renovable. Los compuestos híbridos se fabricaron mediante moldeado por infusión de resina asistida por vacío (VARIM), donde el núcleo se utilizó como medio de infusión de la resina. Las propiedades mecánicas se evaluaron en condiciones de impacto y de flexión. La interacción en la intercara fibra-matriz se evaluó por medio de microscopía electrónica de barrido de emisión de campo (FESEM). Los datos revelaron que el tratamiento de silanos funciona mejor en las fibras de basalto que en las fibras de lino, resultando en propiedades a flexión superiores en las estructuras donde estas fibras están presentes. Cabe mencionar que la distribución de apilamiento influye directamente en las propiedades a flexión, pero no afecta en la absorción de energía en condiciones de impacto.
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